Knowledge Bank

JUTE AT A GLANCE:

Jute, also known as yute, 黄麻, 黃麻, ジュート, Dzuut, juta, juutti, iuta, юта etc. comes from the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. Jute was once known as the golden fiber of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Jute fiber is produced mainly from two commercially important species, namely Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius) or Zhong-shuo Huang-ma or Bengal hemp and White Jute (Corchourus capsularis) or Yuan-guo Huang-ma, Indian Flax. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. There are some more categories of jute invented at Bangladesh Jute Research Institute are, Meshta jute also known as, Patwa, Rosella Hemp, Rozella, Ceylon Hemp. Kenaf jute is another type which is also known as, Chenaf, Patsan, Bimli, Ambari Hemp, Gombo Hemp, Deccan jute/Hemp, Bombay Jute/Hemp, Brown Indian Hemp.

Did you know?

Jute is such a plant whose every part is useful. Jute leave is a famous and good vegetable, jute fiber is used to make hessian cloth, sacking cloth, D.W. Tarpulin, Canvas, Bags, Geotextiles, Serim cloths, Tobacco sheets, Decorative items, toys, wall hanging, paper, decorative bags, table lamps, furniture, and many more countless things are made from jute fabrics and jute stick. Jute is one of the strongest natural fibers. The long staple fiber has high tensile strength and low extensibility. Its luster determines quality; the more it shines, the better the quality. It also includes good insulating and antistatic properties, as well as having low thermal conductivity and a moderate moisture regain. Jute has a biodegradable feature. It includes acoustic insulating properties and manufacture with
no skin irritations. Jute has the ability to be blended with other fibers, both synthetic and natural, and accepts cellulosic dye classes such as natural, basic, vat, sulfur, reactive, and pigment dyes.
Jute can also be blended with wool. By treating jute with caustic soda, crimp, softness, pliability, and appearance is improved, aiding in its ability to be spun with wool. Liquid ammonia has a similar effect on jute, as well as the added characteristic of improving flame resistance when treated with flame proofing agents.

History:

For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of Bangladesh as well as in India. Since the 17th century the British started trading in jute. The first jute mill was established at Rishra, on the River Hooghly near Calcutta in 1855. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bangladesh by 1895. Many Scots immigrated to Bangladesh to set up jute factories as British jute barons grew rich by processing jute and selling manufactured products made from jute. After the fall of British Empire in India during 1947, most of the Jute Barons started to evacuate India, leaving behind the industrial setup of the Jute Industry. Several group of families came into the jute business by setting up several jute mills in Narayanganj of then East Pakistan, the most significant ones are: Bawanis, Adamjees, Ispahanis and Dauds. After the liberation of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, most of the Pakistani owned Jute Mills were taken over by the government of Bangladesh. Later, to control these Jute mils in Bangladesh, the government built up Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation (BJMC).

Cultivation Process:

Jute cultivation is dependent on climate. Cultivation of jute is quite arduous and painstaking. It has a number of stages of processing namely preparing the land, sowing, weeding, harvesting, retting, extraction of fibre, washing, cleaning and drying etc. It’s a yearly crop and takes about 120 days (April/May-July/August) to complete the process of cultivation. The suitable climate for growing jute is a warm and wet climate, which is offered by the monsoon climate during the fall season. To grow jute, farmers scatter the seeds on cultivated soil. When the plants are about 15–20 cm tall, they are thinned out and about four months after planting, harvesting begins. The plants are usually harvested after they flower. The stalks are cut close to the ground and tied into bundles and soaked in water for about 20 days. This process softens the tissues and the process permits the fibres to be separated. The fibres are then stripped from the stalks and washed in clear water. Then they are hung up or spread on to dry. After 2–3 days of drying, the fibres are then tied into bundles. Temperatures ranging from 70–100 °F and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation. Jute requires 2–3 inches of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period.
Retting is the process of extracting fibers. The available retting processes are:
Mechanical retting or hammering
Chemical retting or boiling & applying chemicals
Steam/vapor/dew retting, and water or microbial retting
Among them, the water or microbial retting is a century old but the most popular process in extracting fibers.

Types of jute:

Jute Fiber:

Bangla Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius) : Bangla Tossa Special (BTS), Bangla Tossa A (BTA), Bangla Tossa B (BTB), Bangla Tossa C (BTC), Bangla Tossa D (BTD), Bangla Tossa E (BTE), Bangla Tossa Rejects/Wastes (BTR/BTW), Bangla Tossa Cuttings/Butts (BTCA and BTCB).

Bangla White Jute (Corchorus capsularis) : Bangla White Special (BWS), Bangla White A (BWA), Bangla White B (BWB), Bangla White C (BWC), Bangla White D (BWD), Bangla White E (BWE), Bangla White Rejects/Wastes (BWR/BWW), Bangla White Cuttings/Butts (BWCA and BWCB).

Hibiscus Fiber:
Roselle Hemp Fiber – Mesta/Meshta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) : Mesta Special, Mesta A, Mesta B, Mesta C.
Cuttings: Special & Ordinary.
Kenaf Fiber – Ambari Hemp/Paco-paco (Hibiscus cannabinus): Special & Ordinary.

Description:

White raw jute originated centuries ago and was first used to make clothing for villagers and farmers. When trying to locate white raw jute for personal or industrial use, it is also known as “bangla white.” Since then, white raw jute has grown vastly in personal and industrial use. White raw jute is traditionally used to make products such as yarn, twine and rope. The grades of this type of jute are bangla white A, B, C, D and R.
Tossa raw jute and white raw jute are the most commonly found types of jute and are grown where climate permits. Tossa raw jute is silkier and much stronger than white raw jute; because of its extra strength, it is also used to make bags such as gunny sacks and clothing. Tossa raw jute is also available in grades A though E.
Meshta is a blend of the Meshta plant and raw white jute, and is graded differently than raw white jute and tossa raw jute; the grades are mesta top, meshta mid and mesta bottom. Meshta because a part of jute production in 1947, when India had to partition its land. Since that time, meshta has become a more important part of this blend because meshta is capable of growing in areas where the climate is not appropriate for raw white or tossa jute.
Cuttings are considered the lowest grade of jute. Like other harvested products, cuttings are often the left over jute of other grades and can be a mixture of leftovers. Jute cuttings are most often used to make paper products; less often, jute cuttings are used to make bags, ropes or other goods, as these products are not as strong. Both white raw jute and Tossa raw jute cuttings are available in grades A and B.
JUTE AND BANGLADESH:
Jute is an eminent cash crop of Bangladesh. Once Bangladesh was the leading country to export jute globally but after shutting off the largest jute mill of the world (Adamjee jute mills) the golden era came to its conclusion. Today we are struggling to bring back the golden period. Some information is given below on jute of Bangladesh and other countries around the world as well.
The area of jute crop has been estimated at 18, 23,104 acres or 7, 37,770 hectares this year which is 8.87% higher than last year.
Total jute production in this year has been estimated at 82, 46,797 bales which is 9.10% higher than previous year.
Bangladesh is getting back to the golden era in recent year as demand for jute and jute made product is increasing as it is considered as bio-degradable product. As Bangladesh has favorable climate to produce jute therefore, Bangladesh currently exporting 70% of raw jute.